The toll of deaths and other consequences

The harms arising from the pandemic can be grouped under four headings:
  • direct health effects
  • indirect health effects
  • wider effects on society
  • economic impacts

Direct health effects
  • the large number of deaths - and the way in which people died
  • the deaths of health and care workers
  • residual effects in those who survive

Indirect health effects
  • the delays of urgent medical investigations
  • treatment delays
  • interruption of health promotion activities

Wider effects on society
  • the disruption of funerals, weddings etc
  • suspension of sporting events etc

Economic impacts
  • the economic disruption


First published: 23 July 2020
Last updated: 24 Jul 2020